A brief history of the African National Congress, 2021 Our struggle for freedom has a long history. It can be traced back to the time when the African people held a spear against the British and Boer colonists. The African National Congress keeps this spirit of resistance alive! In the past 80 years, the ANC has raised millions of dollars in the liberation struggle.
We fight for our country together, against low wages, high rents and cathedrals.
We oppose Bantu education and strive for the right to elect the government of our choice. This story is about our struggle for freedom and justice. It tells the story of the ANC 1. The Kingdom of Africa was defeated in the 1860s-1900 White settlers from the Netherlands first came to South Africa in 1652. There were many uphill battles for land and livestock. Although the African Kingdom lost its land and livestock, they remained independent 200 years later. But in the 1860s, Britain brought an army with horses, modern rifles and cannons to control South Africa.
The Xhosa launched nine resistance wars against the colonists. After more than 100 years of war, they were finally defeated in 1878. In 1878, under the leadership of Cetshwayo, the Zulu brought a disastrous defeat to the British army in Isandhlwana, but were eventually defeated by British reinforcements in Ulundi. Soon after, the British attacked and defeated the Pedi, who had also remained independent for many years. Leaders such as Sukhukhune, Sandile and Cetshwayo have been captured, imprisoned or killed. By 1900, Britain had broken the power of the African kingdoms, and they were under the control of the colonial government. When Britain granted independence to the Boers and British settlers in 1910, they gave them this control.
The South African Union is composed of a government that only recognizes the rights of whites and denies the rights of blacks. 2. Founding of the ANC-1912 The resistance war ended with the failure of the Bambata rebellion. Africans must find new ways to fight for their country and their freedom. In 1911, Pixley ka Isaka Seme called on Africans to forget past differences and unite in a national organization. He said: "We are one person. These divisions, these jealousies are the root of all our suffering today." On January 8, 1912, chiefs, representatives of the people, church organizations, and other prominent figures gathered in Bloemfontein to form the African National Congress. The African National Congress announced that its goal is to unite all Africans and defend their rights and freedoms. When the African National Congress was established, South Africa was changing rapidly.
Diamonds were discovered in 1867 and gold was discovered in 1886. The leader of the mine hopes that many people will work for them in the mine. Laws and taxes are designed to force people to leave their country.
The strictest law is the Land Act of 1913, which prohibits Africans from buying, leasing, or using land other than reserved land. Due to the land law, many communities or families immediately lost their land. It has become very difficult for millions of other blacks to make a living on this land. The Land Law caused overcrowding, land hunger, poverty and hunger. 3. Working to earn wages The Land Law and other laws and taxes force people to find jobs in mines and white farms.
Although some blacks settled in cities such as Johannesburg, most of the workers were immigrants. They go to work in the mines and then return to the countryside with part of their wages, usually once a year. But Africans cannot move freely. Passports control their movements, allowing them to work in mines or farms. The passport law also prevents Africans from leaving their jobs or going on strike. In 1919, the African National Congress opposed the Transvaal Pass. The African National Congress also supported the radical strike of African miners in 1920.
However, some ANC leaders disagree with radical actions such as strikes and protests. They believe that the ANC should achieve its goals through convictions, such as by appealing to the United Kingdom. But the appeal of a delegation that visited Britain in 1914 to protest the Land Act and again in 1919 to urge Britain to recognize African rights was ignored.
This cautious approach caused the ANC to be less active in the 1920s. The Industrial and Commercial Union (ICU) is a general trade union founded in 1919. It was the most active and popular organization in rural and urban areas at that time. The union has achieved some major victories for its workers through radical actions. However, the intensive care unit was not self-sufficient and closed in the late 1920s. In the 1920s, socialist organizations also began to organize black workers. The International Socialist Union established the Communist Party together with other socialist organizations in 1921. The Communist Party became the first non-racial political organization in South Africa. In the 1920s, government policies became more severe and racist. In some industries, color bars were introduced to prevent blacks from engaging in semi-technical jobs. This also means that black workers receive lower wages due to unskilled labor. J.T. Gumede was elected President of the ANC in 1927.
He tried to revitalize the ANC to combat these racist policies. Gumed believes that the Communists can contribute to this struggle and hopes that the ANC will cooperate with them. However, Gumed was vetoed in 1930, and the ANC became inactive under the leadership of the Conservative Party in the 1930s. fourth place The African National Congress gets a new life-1940s The ANC was rejuvenated in the 1940s, from its meticulous organization in the 1930s to what it looked like in the 1950s.
The increasing attacks on black rights and the rise of extreme African nationalism require a more radical response from the ANC. Severe racism has also led to increased cooperation between African, black and Indian organizations. In 1947, the ANC and the Indian Parliament signed an agreement to fully support the election campaigns of both parties. The ANC Youth League was established in 1944.
The young leaders of the Youth Leagueincluding Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and Oliver Tambo are based on African nationalism. They believe that only through their own efforts can the Africans be liberated. The Youth League aims to involve the broad masses of the people in fighting. In the 1940s, more people moved to cities to work in new factories and industries. They started with their own community organizationssuch as the squatter movement and unions. The radical ideas of the Youth Association soon gained support from the new urban population. The Youth League has developed an action plan calling for strikes, boycotts and resistance. In 1949, one year after the KMT came to power, the ANC passed the bill. This action plan led to a resistance movement in the 1950s. 5. A mass movement was born-1950 The resistance movement was the beginning of a mass movement against apartheid. Apartheid aims to completely separate ethnic groups through laws such as the Population Registration Act, the Group Territory Act, and the Bantu Education Act, as well as stricter passport laws and forced evictions.
"Non-Europeans" pass through the entrance of "Europeans only" and request services at the "whites only" counter in the post office. Africans violated passport laws, and Indian, colored and white volunteers entered African cities and towns without permission. The success of the resistance movement encouraged further campaigns against apartheid laws, such as the Group Area Law and the Bantu Education Law.
The government tried to stop the resistance movement by banning its leaders and passing new laws to stop public disobedience. But the sport has already made huge profits. It brings closer cooperation between ANC and SA Indian.
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