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Chronic kidney disease: what is it, most common types and risk factors

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a gradual decline of kidney function over time. A person's kidneys may fail at some point.


Dialysis is nothing more than an artificial stimulation of the kidney function, usually when the organs reach only 10% of functioning.


That is why it is so important to understand more about a disease that affects so many of us. After all, 1 in 10 Brazilians face this problem. But what is Chronic Kidney Disease? Do you know?


What is Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic kidney disease are changes that can affect both the structure and function of the kidneys. These changes can have multiple causes and factors.


Kidney diseases progress over a long period of time and usually progress most of the time without symptoms. This is why they are usually diagnosed late.


In the most advanced stage of the disease, the end-stage chronic renal failure (CKD), the kidneys can no longer maintain their function.


When the patient reaches this stage they are submitted to haemodialysis, the main treatment. In this process the blood is filtered by equipment and returns to the patient's body with less impurities.


In addition, there are some types of Chronic Kidney Disease which are more common. Understand what they are.


The most common types of Chronic Kidney Disease

There are some types of this type of problem that are more common than others. That is, they have a greater recurrence of cases. That is why it is important to be aware of the most common types of CKD and their causes.


Kidney stones

Kidney stones are nothing more than the famous kidney stones. They are formed mainly by low fluid intake combined with high salt and protein intake.


They can also cause pain when they move and obstruct the urinary flow. They can also cause life-threatening complications from urinary tract infection.


Kidney infection or pyelonephritis

This is when a bacterium, cystitis, reaches the bladder. It goes up to the kidney, causing fever and pain in the affected area.


In these cases, the treatment must be done with antibiotics. Besides, many times this infection requires hospital admission.


Renal cysts

These cysts are like "bubbles" that form in the middle of the kidneys. They are quite common after the age of 40.


Usually, this problem is diagnosed by routine examination. Also, it is common that cysts cause no problems or symptoms.


This condition does not need treatment but needs to be monitored constantly.


Kidney tumour or cancer

This condition is rare but may occur due to the high frequency of kidney cysts. Therefore, imaging tests are usually requested for a correct diagnosis.


Unlike cysts, kidney tumours are solid lesions, besides containing fluid inside. They are usually malignant, but if diagnosed early on there is a high chance of cure.

Loss of kidney function (kidney failure)

Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to filter waste products, salts and liquids from the blood. In this sense, some diseases can increase the chances of developing this problem. Some examples are diabetes and high blood pressure.


This happens because when these pathologies are not well controlled, they lead to kidney deterioration. Besides, there are also other health conditions which influence the development of this disease. Understand what they are.


Main risk factors for chronic renal diseases

There are some conditions that favour the development of chronic kidney disease. We know these conditions as risk factors.


It turns out that those who have these characteristics are more likely to develop this type of problem. Understand what they are:


people with diabetes (type 1 or type 2)

hypertensive people;

people with obesity (BMI > 30 Kg/m²);

history of cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, stroke, coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, etc.)

family history of Chronic Renal Disease;

use of nephrotoxic drugs (which release toxic substances from the bloodstream).

These are the main risk factors for the development of chronic kidney disease. But do you know how to prevent this disease?

How to prevent chronic kidney disease?

We must say that there is no miraculous preventive treatment for chronic kidney disease. In this case prevention is in the control of risk factors, mentioned above.


That is why it is so important that, besides knowing the factors, we have a medical follow-up. This way we can closely monitor how our health is doing.


Nevertheless, there are some cares that we can include in our routine to prevent problems like this. Understand what they are:


practice physical exercises;

control your cholesterol

keep your glucose regulated

keep your blood pressure stable;

do not use medicines without medical prescription;

avoid excess salt and red meat;

have periodic exams;

consult your doctor regularly.

By taking these precautions we can avoid or even discover kidney problems at an early stage.

Content created and supplied by: Felix (via Opera News )

Brazilians CKD

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