The cancerous growth known as melanoma occurs in the cells that make melanin, the pigment responsible for the color of your skin. You can get melanoma in your eyes because they produce melanin. Ocular melanoma is another name for eye cancer.
The majority of ocular melanomas develop in the area of the eye that is invisible in a mirror. Because of this, eye melanoma is challenging to find. In addition, early indications or symptoms of eye melanoma are often absent.
The condition of eye melanomas can be treated. Some tiny eye melanoma treatments may not impair your vision. However, vision loss is frequently experienced during therapy for big ocular melanomas.
There may be no symptoms or indicators of eye melanoma. Signs and symptoms of eye melanoma can include the following when they do appear:
an impression of flashes or dust grains in your field of view (floaters)
-A developing iris-based dark spot
-A change in the appearance of the dark circle (pupil) in your eye's middle
-Vision issues or blurriness in one eye
-Reduction in peripheral vision
2— When to see a doctor
If you experience any signs or symptoms, schedule a visit with your doctor. Seek immediate assistance if your vision suddenly changes because that's an emergency.
The exact cause of eye melanoma is unknown. Doctors are aware that when mistakes arise in the DNA of healthy eye cells, eye melanoma develops. The mutant cells continue to live when they should ordinarily perish because the DNA mistakes instruct the cells to thrive and reproduce uncontrollably. A melanoma of the eye is created when the mutant cells build up in the eye.
4— Where eye melanoma occurs
The cells of your eye's middle layer are where eye melanoma most frequently manifests itself (uvea). Eye melanoma can affect any of the three sections of the uvea:
- The iris, the colorful portion of the eye's front,
- The layer of blood vessels and connective tissue between the retina and sclera at the back of the uvea is known as the choroid layer.
- The ciliary body secretes the clear fluid (aqueous humor) into the eye and is located in front of the uvea.
Eye melanoma can also develop on the conjunctiva, the outermost layer on the front of the eye, in the socket that houses the eyeball, and on the eyelid, however these cases are extremely uncommon.
5— Risk factors
Primary melanoma of the eye risk factors include:
Light eye color – Melanoma of the eye is more likely to develop in people with blue or green eyes.
Being white — Compared to people of other races, white people are more likely to get eye melanoma.
Age – Eye melanoma risk rises with advancing years.
Unusual moles are — A result of a condition called dysplastic nevus syndrome, which raises your risk of getting melanoma on your skin and in your eyes.
Ocular melanocytosis, which is increased pigmentation on the uvea, as well as aberrant skin pigmentation affecting the eyelids and surrounding tissues all enhance a person's risk of getting eye melanoma.
UV light exposure – It's not entirely apparent how UV exposure affects the development of eye melanoma. There is some proof that being exposed to UV light, such as that from the sun or tanning beds, may make eye melanoma more likely.
Some genetic mutations — Some genes that parents pass on to their offspring may raise the chance of eye melanoma.
-Glaucoma, or increased eye pressure — may be brought on by an expanding melanoma in the eye. Blurred vision, eye pain, and eye redness are all possible glaucoma symptoms.
-Loss of vision – Large ocular melanomas frequently result in loss of vision in the affected eye and can lead to consequences such retinal detachment that also result in loss of vision.
If they develop in crucial eye regions, small ocular melanomas can result in some degree of visual loss. You might have trouble seeing in the middle of your field of vision or to the sides. Eye melanomas at advanced stages can completely impair eyesight.
-Eye melanoma that metastasizes outside of the eye — Eye melanoma can metastasize to distant parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, and bones.
Source: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/eye-melanoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20372371 | https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/eye-cancer/symptoms | https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/eye-cancer/
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