Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery aims at improving the appearance of it.
Treatments for the plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in the c.1600 BCE Egyptian medical text called the Edwin Smith papyrus.The early trauma surgery textbook was named after the American Egyptologist, Edwin Smith. Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC. Sushruta was a physician who made contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in the 6th century BC.Sushruta's developments were preserved in his book, Sushruta Samhita.
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery, using simple techniques, such as repairing damaged ears, from around the 1st century BC. For religious reasons, they did not dissect either human beings or animals, thus their knowledge was based in its entirety on the texts of their Greek predecessors. Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions,some of which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.
The Indian medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka, originally in Sanskrit, were translated into the Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD.The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
Jessie James Decker
Larissa Dos Santos Lima
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