Opera News

Opera News App

Components of a Pest Management Program in Organic Cropping Systems

PATRICKHE
By PATRICKHE | self meida writer
Published 1 months ago - 0 views

Components of a Pest Management Program in Organic Cropping Systems

1. Identifying pests and understanding the ecology of agronomically important arthropods

a) An understanding of how environmental conditions affect populations of both pest and beneficial arthropods will help a grower make effective management decisions

i. Key pest: An herbivore that is consistently present, and if not managed, likely to exceed economic thresholds

ii. Secondary pest: An herbivore that is often present but rarely exceeds economic thresholds due to naturally-present predation and parasitism. An important exception is where broad-spectrum insecticides have reduced or eliminated these top-down controls. In these instances, secondary pests become very problematic.

iii. Occasional pest: An herbivore that may cause problems once every few years; only occurs when environmental conditions strongly favor their development

2. Monitoring for presence and abundance of insect populations and damage

a) Regular and systematic field assessments provide essential information on the status of the crop in relation to populations of pests and natural enemies. These assessments are critical for accurate Economic Injury Level (EIL)-based decisions (see more on EIL, be low).

3. Monitoring methods commonly used a) Visual inspection/observation: Regular visual inspection and observation of plants in field and lab is the most effective monitoring method for small growers

b) Pest-specific monitoring and sampling procedures for the garden and small farm

c) Larger-scale monitoring and sampling: See anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/ for a listing of IPM manuals for crop-specific monitoring and management

d) Arthropod sampling techniques for the garden and small farm

i. Traps: Less effective as they tell what is on the farm and not necessarily what is affecting the crops. Traps may also catch arthropods that come from outside the farm or garden.

• Pheromone traps: Attract specific insects by chemical lure

• Sticky traps: Capture flying adult insects

• Light traps: Select for nocturnal insects

• Pit fall traps: Capture ground-dwellings arthropods and spiders

ii. Collection: Most effective in determining abundance and correlating arthropods with crop damage

• Sweep nets: Use to capture insects on vegetation

• Aspirators: Use to capture very small insects on vegetation

• Shaking plants: Shaking or beating plants or branches onto paper for later sampling is a useful way to gather insects for identification that might normally go unseen iii. Degree-day monitoring: For some pests and beneficial insects, researchers have created temperature development thresholds at which time management actions may best be taken

4. Monitoring protocol for in-field visual inspections a) Survey crops systematically and on regular basis

i. Frequency: 1x/week; 2x/week during peak growing season

ii. Vegetable crops:

• Walk furrows and check both sides of leaves every few plants

• Remove wilted plants and examine root system for indications of soil borne insects, pathogens

• Root crops: Check the soil before you plant by running your fingers through the soil looking for small insects. Collect and identify samples (rear pupae to adults if necessary).

iii. Orchards

• Check trunk for injury (e.g., sap oozing from wounds)

• Check fruit for scars or points of entry

• Check interior of grounded fruit for pest presence

• Examine both sides of leaves on each side of the tree

b) Assess and record the following:

i. Date, time, crop, and weather conditions

ii. Determine whether proper cultural care is being delivered (e.g., water, weed control)

iii. Number of pests observed

iv. Amount and type of damage

v. Presence and numbers of beneficials/natural enemies

vi. Evidence of parasitism or predation of pest organisms vii. Stage of crop development

From Opera

The views expressed in this article are the writer's, they do not reflect the views of Opera News. Please report any fake news or defamatory statements to [email protected]

Content created and supplied by: PATRICKHE (via Opera News )

Tags:      

Opera News is a free to use platform and the views and opinions expressed herein are solely those of the author and do not represent, reflect or express the views of Opera News. Any/all written content and images displayed are provided by the blogger/author, appear herein as submitted by the blogger/author and are unedited by Opera News. Opera News does not consent to nor does it condone the posting of any content that violates the rights (including the copyrights) of any third party, nor content that may malign, inter alia, any religion, ethnic group, organization, gender, company, or individual. Opera News furthermore does not condone the use of our platform for the purposes encouraging/endorsing hate speech, violation of human rights and/or utterances of a defamatory nature. If the content contained herein violates any of your rights, including those of copyright, and/or violates any the above mentioned factors, you are requested to immediately notify us using via the following email address operanews-external(at)opera.com and/or report the article using the available reporting functionality built into our Platform

YOU MAY LIKE

Women, Avoid These five Foods During Pregnancy To Reduce Stress

1 minutes ago

0 🔥

Women, Avoid These five Foods During Pregnancy To Reduce Stress

Watch: How Ginger Can Help Preserve Your Liver

9 minutes ago

0 🔥

Watch: How Ginger Can Help Preserve Your Liver

Watch : 4 Ways Women Can Give Their Children Birth Without Pushing

10 minutes ago

0 🔥

Watch : 4 Ways Women Can Give Their Children Birth Without Pushing

To all who's been suffering

21 minutes ago

6 🔥

To all who's been suffering

Yesterday| 11-April-2021 Covid-19 New Cases Updates.

32 minutes ago

39 🔥

Yesterday| 11-April-2021 Covid-19 New Cases Updates.

5 Jobs That Can Make You Irresistible

35 minutes ago

0 🔥

5 Jobs That Can Make You Irresistible

Zimbabweans Are Being Vaccinated Freely In SA Yet Zim President Charges Foreigners For Vaccines

39 minutes ago

66 🔥

Zimbabweans Are Being Vaccinated Freely In SA Yet Zim President Charges Foreigners For Vaccines

10 Warning Signs You Have A Brain Tumor

45 minutes ago

14 🔥

10 Warning Signs You Have A Brain Tumor

Zimbabwe Government calls people Foreigners. Where are EFF Followers?

58 minutes ago

18 🔥

Zimbabwe Government calls people Foreigners. Where are EFF Followers?

Only 3 Days Left of Lockdown Extension, Is This The End of the Lockdown In South Africa?

1 hours ago

527 🔥

Only 3 Days Left of Lockdown Extension, Is This The End of the Lockdown In South Africa?

COMMENTS